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2016年12月第一套 Passage One Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage. The Paris climate agreement finalised in December last year heralded a new era for climate action.For the first time, the world's nations agreed to keep global warming well below 2℃. This is vital for climate-vulnerable nations. Fewer than 4% of countries are responsible for more than half of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. In a study published in Nature Scientific Reports, we reveal just how deep this injustice runs. Developed nations such as Australia, the United States, Canada, and European countries are essentially climate "free-riders": causing the majority of the problems through high greenhouse gas emissions, while incurring few of the costs such as climate change's impact on food and water. In other words, a few countries are benefiting enormously from the consumption of fossil fuels, while at the same time contributing disproportionately to the global burden of climate change. On the flip side, there are many "forced riders", who are suffering from the climate change impacts despite having scarcely contributed to the problem. Many of the world's most climate-vulnerable countries, the majority of which are African or small island states, produce a very small quantity of emissions. This is much like a non-smoker getting cancer from second-hand smoke, while the heavy smoker is fortunate enough to smoke in good health. The Paris agreement has been widely hailed as a positive step forward in addressing climate change for all, although the details on addressing "climate justice" can be best described as sketchy. The goal of keeping global temperature rise "well below" 2~C is commendable but the emissions-reduction pledges submitted by countries leading up to the Paris talks are very unlikely to deliver on this. More than $100 billion in funding has been put on the table for supporting developing nations to reduce emissions. However, the agreement specifies that there is no form


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